Design and Operational Strategy

The specification of an energy storage system must depend on the field of application in order to reduce the systems costs.

The field of application determines the system capacity and nominal power (specification). The used storage technology (e.g. kinetic energy storage, lithium-ion battery etc.) has to be selected and designed (design). Making these decisions without considering the operational strategy leads to an under- or overdesized storage system. A main driver of the profitability of energy storage systems is its operational strategy and it should be considered from the very beginning in the development process.

The operational strategy determines the behavior of the energy storage system in the field of application. For an optimal behavior, the operational strategy has to consider the systems state of charge as well as the applications future demands.

As a result, operational strategy has a high impact on the overall system properties. Considering the operational strategy in the state of specification and design allows for an optimal decision. An intelligent operational strategy allows for a considerable reduction of the system capacity. By avoiding unnecessary charge and discharge cycles, the energy efficiency increases and the deterioration of the system is reduced. Hence, an appropriate operational strategy also lowers the operating costs and increases the system’s lifetime.

Completed Projects Related to this Key Topic:

Funded by BMWi, period 2017 – 2019

In this project, a hybrid energy storage system is developed and implemented in the ETA-Fabrik. The hybrid system consisting of a battery and a flywheel is evaluated in terms of functionality, robustness and utilization in an industrial environment.

Contact: Panagiotis Mouratidis,

Further information you can find on the Project webseite.

funded by BMWi, period 2014-2017

Target of the project “Siedlungsbausteine für bestehende Wohnquartiere – Impulse zur Vernetzung energieeffizienter Technologien” (Modules for existing residential quarters – Impulse for the interconnection of energy efficient technologies) is the development and intelligent integration of a hybrid energy storage system consisting of a refined flywheel in combination with a Li-Ion battery.

Contact: Maximilian Schneider,

Further information you can find on the Project website.